Childhood Disorders

Developmental Disabilities

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder of muscle control which results from some damage to part of the brain. The term cerebral palsy is used when the problem has occurred early in life, to the developing brain. Children with cerebral palsy can have problems such as muscle...

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Developmental Delay

Children reach developmental milestones at their own pace. Minor, temporary delays are usually no cause for alarm, but an ongoing delay or multiple delays in reaching milestones can lead to issues later in life. A developmental delay can occur in just one area or in a...

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Down’s Syndrome

Down syndrome is a genetic condition in which the child inherits all or part of an extra 21st chromosome. Children with Down syndrome have 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. It is the most frequently occurring chromosomal disorder. The consequences of Down...

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Intellectual Disability

Intellectual disability is a condition of limited mental ability in which the individual, (1) has a low IQ, usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test; (2) has difficulty in adapting to the demands of everyday life; and (3) first exhibits these...

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Specific Learning Disability

Dysgraphia (Impairment in Writting)

Dysgraphia is a specific learning disability that affects written expression. Dysgraphia can appear as difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting and trouble putting thoughts on paper. Many children have poor handwriting, but dysgraphia is more serious. There are...

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Dyscalculia (Impairment in Arithmetic)

Dyscalculia is a specific learning disability characterised by difficulty in acquiring arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and...

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Dyslexia (Impairment in Reading)

Dyslexia is a specific learning disability that is neurological in origin. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and/or fluent word recognition and by poor spelling and decoding abilities. It involves impairment in the ability to process sounds, that is,...

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Attention Deficit And Related Disorders

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by difficulties that interfere with effective task-oriented behavior in children—particularly impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity such as aimless or haphazard running or fidgeting, and...

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Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)

Children with ADD have all the similar Difficulties like ADHD, except that they are not hyperactive. They have tendencies of showing Anger, impulsivity, excitability, forgetfulness & Low- concentration. This disorder is sometimes accompanied with Depression &...

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Behaviour Problems

Childhood Depression

Depression is an episodic, recurring disorder characterized by persistent and pervasive sadness or unhappiness, loss of enjoyment of everyday activities, irritability, and associated symptoms such as negative thinking, lack of energy, difficulty concentrating, and...

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Conduct Disorder

Conduct disorder refers to age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, society’s norms, and the personal or property rights of others. Children with conduct problems show a wide range of rule-violating behaviors, from swearing and temper...

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder is a behavioral disorder of childhood characterized by recurrent disobedient, negativistic, or hostile behavior toward authority figures that is more pronounced than usually seen in children of similar age, lasting longer than six months....

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Anxiety Related Disorders

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Some children are noticed to experience extreme fear and discomfort when they are separated from their parents. They may show a persistent worry that the parent will leave them and not return. This fear may even lead to refusal to go to school. They may cry and throw...

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Sibling Rivalry

Arguments between siblings are one of the ways children learn how to be fair, to respect others and to resolve differences. Learning how to argue fairly without hurting anyone is a skill that will help them in future relationships. A rivalry between siblings has been...

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Phobic Anxiety

Fears are common in childhood and often go away. A phobia is diagnosed if the fear persists for at least six months and interferes with a child’s daily routine, such as refusing to play outdoors for fear of encountering a dog. Specific phobia refers to the intense,...

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Social Anxiety Disorder

Social anxiety disorder, or social phobia, is characterized by an intense fear of social and performance situations and activities. This can significantly impair the child’s school performance and attendance, as well as the ability to socialize with peers and develop...

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Elimination Disorders

Encopresis

Encopresis is repeated defecation in inappropriate places (clothing, floor, etc.) that occurs after the age of 4 and is not due to a substance (e.g., a laxative) or to a general medical condition. Around about four years of age, most children learn that they must go...

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Bed Wetting/Enuresis

Enuresis refers to repeated involuntary urination in inappropriate places (clothing, flor, etc.) that occurs after the chronological age when continence is expected (generally 5 years old) and that is not due to a substance (e.g., a diuretic) or to a general medical...

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Other Childhood Problems

Obesity

Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. Children who are obese are above the normal weight for their age and height. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and...

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Stammering

There are often instances when there is disturbance in producing smooth, uninterrupted speech. More specifically, the fluency of speech becomes hampered due to repetitions of syllables and words. This may be very embarrassing and difficult for the client to hand...

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) consists of a group of disorders with an onset typically occurring during the preschool years and characterized by varying but often marked difficulties in communication and social interaction. ASD, also known as pervasive developmental...

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Psychotic Problems

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia causes strange thinking, strange feelings, and unusual behaviour in children. It is hard to recognize in its early phases. The symptoms and behaviour of children with schizophrenia may be different from that of adults with this illness. With Early...

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