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Old Age Treatments

Old Age Diet Counselling

Nutrition is an important part of a healthy lifestyle. Without proper nutrition, one does not have enough energy to make it through the day. Also, health declines without proper nutrition, making one more susceptible to illness and disease. Also, certain problems like Eating Disorders and obesity often lead to malnutrition which, in the long run, can lead to serious diseases. Diet counselling helps the person to create an action plan so as to adopt a healthier lifestyle and diet. Through diet counselling, individuals can learn more about how their food choices affect their health. It is an ongoing process in which the counsellor works with an individual to assess his or her usual dietary intake and identify areas where change is needed. He/she provides information, educational materials, support, and follow-up to help the individual make and maintain the needed dietary changes.

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Old Age Treatments

Old Age Acceptance And Commitment Therapy

A relatively new approach, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) uses behavioural techniques in combination with an emphasis on clients’ use of language to alleviate client distress. Here, the focus is on accepting a feeling, event, or situation rather than avoiding it. ACT therapists believe many emotional problems develop as clients use ineffective methods, such as avoidance, to control their emotions. Rather than having clients focus on avoiding a feeling, they help clients accept a feeling, event, or situation. Clients can then look at their thoughts and feelings rather than look from them. They help clients clarify values and commit to behaviours that fit with these values. This treatment is useful in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and anxiety-related disorders.

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Old Age Treatments

Old Age Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET)

Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) is based on principles of motivational psychology and is designed to produce rapid, internally motivated change. The MET approach begins with the assumption that the responsibility and capability for change lie within the client. The therapist’s task is to create a set of conditions that will enhance the client’s own motivation for and commitment to change. Rather than relying upon therapy sessions as the primary locus of change, the therapist seeks to mobilize the client’s inner resources as well as those inherent in the client’s natural helping relationships. MET consists of four carefully planned and individualized treatment sessions. The first two sessions focus on structured feedback from the initial assessment, future plans, and motivation for change. The final two sessions at the midpoint and end of treatment provide opportunities for the therapist to reinforce progress, encourage reassessment, and provide an objective perspective on the process of change. Due to the its brief nature, it may be particularly useful in situations where contact with clients is limited to few or infrequent. Treatment outcome research strongly supports MET strategies as effective in producing change in substance abuse clients.

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Old Age Treatments

Old Age Behaviour Therapy

Behaviour therapy is a direct and active mode of therapeutic intervention that recognizes the importance of behaviour, acknowledges the role of learning, and includes thorough assessment and evaluation. Instead of exploring past traumatic events or inner conflicts, behaviour therapists focus on the presenting problem—the problem or symptom that is causing the patient great distress. A major assumption of behaviour therapy is that abnormal behaviour is acquired in the same way as normal behaviour—that is, by learning. A variety of behavioural techniques have therefore been developed to help patients “unlearn” maladaptive behaviours by one means or another. Techniques used in Behaviour therapy include Exposure therapy, Aversion therapy, Modelling, Systematic use of reinforcement and Token economies. Behaviour therapy ranges wide and is known to be successfully applied in children, adults as well as old age population.

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Old Age Treatments

Supportive Therapy

Supportive psychotherapy is a dyadic treatment that uses direct measures improve symptoms and maintain, restore, or improve self-esteem, ego function, and adaptive skills. This therapy is based on encouragement, optimism and support. Through supportive therapy one might be able to resume one’s daily’s activities and use his ability to cope with them. The aim of this therapy is also to reduce and prevent anxiety along with increasing a person’s awareness of his illness or his problem. The therapist attempts to help patients deal with their emotional distress and problems in living. It includes comforting, advising, encouraging, reassuring, and mostly listening, attentively and sympathetically. The therapist provides an emotional outlet, the chance for patients to express themselves and be themselves. Also, the therapist may inform patients about their illness and about how to manage it and how to adjust to it. Depending on the client’s specific needs, as well as the degree of severity or complexity of the issues at hand, supportive psychotherapy may be a short-term intervention or a longer-term, ongoing form of treatment. It can be a very beneficial treatment for a wide range of psychiatric disorders throughout the life span like Developmental disorders, Psychotic disorders, Mood disorders, Anxiety disorders, Personality disorders, Adjustment disorders, etc. Supportive psychotherapy can help these individuals by reducing their anxiety, providing a nurturing, positive relationship, improving and reinforcing their coping skills, boosting their self-esteem, providing reassurance when appropriate, confronting inappropriate behaviour when necessary, and giving them guidance and advice as needed.

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Old Age Treatments

Relaxation training

Relaxation training is a general term that refers to methods that are used to teach and learn specific techniques to help people moderate or control reactivity or arousal that is problematic to them. It includes various arousal control methods, such as muscle relaxation training, biofeedback, meditation, imagery, and paced breathing. Relaxation training often is used in behaviour therapy as a means to reduce anxiety, tension, and stress. Research has shown it to be effective in a variety of disorders and conditions, primarily those related to anxiety, fear, and stress. Training patients to relax typically involves providing a rationale, demonstrating exercises, and practicing relaxation in treatment sessions. In addition, patients almost always are asked to practice (“homework”) between therapy sessions. Often, forms or log books are used for patients to record details about their practice. It also can be used to help facilitate communication during a therapy session with a client who may be too tense or anxious to communicate effectively with the therapist. The goal of relaxation training is to make the person physically relaxed and mentally alert. Relaxation training is different from lazing on once bed, sleeping and just not doing anything. It involves a series of steps which one must follow to achieve a state of lowered physiological arousal. Learning how to relax is beneficial in various situations, this simple technique can increase energy, motivation and productivity.

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Old Age Treatments

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy

Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT) is a type of cognitive behaviour therapy first used by Albert Ellis which focuses on resolving emotional and behavioural problems. The goal of the therapy is to change irrational beliefs to more rational ones. REBT involves uncovering clients’ irrational or dysfunctional beliefs and actively and directively disputes them. It sees people’s self-defeating cognitions, emotions, and behaviours as intrinsically and holistically connected, not disparate. It holds that they disturb themselves with disordered thoughts, feelings, and actions, all of which importantly interact with each other and with the difficulties they encounter in their environment. Therefore, with emotionally and behaviourally disturbed people, REBT employs a number of thinking, feel, and action techniques that are designed to help them change their self-defeating and socially sabotaging conduct to self-helping and socially effective ways. REBT theorizes that virtually all humans consciously and unconsciously train themselves to be to some degree emotionally disturbed. Therefore, with the help of an effective therapist and/or with self-help materials, they can teach themselves to lead more satisfying lives—if they choose to do so and work hard at modifying their thinking, feeling, and behaving. REBT encourages a person to identify their general and irrational beliefs (e.g. I must be perfect”) and subsequently persuades the person challenge these false beliefs through reality testing.

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Old Age Treatments

COGNITIVE REHABILITATION THERAPY

Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CRT) is a broad term used to describe specific rehabilitation interventions designed to address problems in mental processing that are associated with chronic illness, brain injury, or trauma, such as stroke. Given the wide range of symptoms and severity of cognitive problems in individuals with brain injury, CRT does not refer to a specific approach to treatment. It may include relearning specific mental abilities, strengthening unaffected abilities, or substituting new abilities to compensate for lost ones. It comprises of interventions that aim to lessen impairments, or lessen the disabling impact of those impairments. Interventions are applied through technology and other compensatory strategies that may allow the individual with cognitive impairment to accomplish important life activities and more fully participate in society. The interventions can be provided on a one-on-one basis or in a small group setting.

The process of CRT comprises 4 components:

  1. Education about cognitive weaknesses and strengths. The focus here is on developing awareness of the problem.
  2. Process Training. This refers to the development of skills through direct retraining or practicing the underlying cognitive skills. The focus here is on resolving the problem.
  3. Strategy Training. This involves the use of environmental, internal and external strategies. The focus here is on compensating rather than resolving the problem.
  4. Functional Activities Training. This involves the application of the other three components in everyday life. The focus here is on real life improvements
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Old Age Treatments

Psychoeducation

Psychoeducation refers to the process of providing education and information to those seeking or receiving mental health services and their family members. Many individuals who have a mental health condition know little or nothing about the condition they have been diagnosed with, what they might expect from therapy, or the positive and negative effects of any medications they may be prescribed. Information on these topics given to them by medical professionals may be confusing or otherwise difficult to comprehend and thus of little help. Offered in both individual and group formats, psychoeducation can benefit the individual diagnosed, parents and other family members, and caregivers and friends. Also, there are lots of wrong ideas and rumours surrounding psychiatric problems. One of the reasons could be less genuine information which people are exposed to through media and non-experts. Being misinformed can stop us from approaching a medical professional as a consequence of which chances of recovery are lowered. During psychoeducation misconceptions are clarified, queries are answered and detailed information is provided. It is generally known that those who have a thorough understanding of the challenges they are facing as well as knowledge of personal coping ability, internal and external resources, and their own areas of strength are often better able to address difficulties, feel more in control of the condition(s), and have a greater internal capacity to work toward mental and emotional well-being. Psychoeducation often leads to increased compliance with treatment regimens.

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Old Age Treatments

Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

  1. Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (CRT) is a broad term used to describe specific rehabilitation interventions designed to address problems in mental processing that are associated with chronic illness, brain injury, or trauma, such as stroke.
  2. Given the wide range of symptoms and severity of cognitive problems in individuals with brain injury, CRT does not refer to a specific approach to treatment. It may include relearning specific mental abilities, strengthening unaffected abilities, or substituting new abilities to compensate for lost ones.
  3. It comprises of interventions that aim to lessen impairments, or lessen the disabling impactof those impairments. Interventions are applied through technology and other compensatory strategies that may allow the individual with cognitive impairment to accomplish important life activities and more fully participate in society. The interventions can be provided on a one-on-one basis or in a small group setting.

The process of CRT comprises 4 components:

  1. Education about cognitive weaknesses and strengths. The focus here is on developing awareness of the problem.
  2. Process Training. This refers to the development of skills through direct retraining or practicing the underlying cognitive skills. The focus here is on resolving the problem.
  3. Strategy Training. This involves the use of environmental, internal and external strategies. The focus here is on compensating rather than resolving the problem.
  4. Functional Activities Training. This involves the application of the other three components in everyday life. The focus here is on real life improvements.